Unraveling the 14 Risk Factors for Early-Onset Dementia

A groundbreaking study by European universities, encompassing over 350,000 individuals under 65 across the United Kingdom, has identified several risk factors contributing to early-onset dementia. This research, leveraging data from the UK Biobank study and published in JAMA Neurology, challenges the long-held belief that genetics are the sole cause of early dementia. The study’s findings not only illuminate potential causes but also offer new avenues for prevention, emphasizing lifestyle changes.

1. Limited Formal Education

Educational Attainment Linked to Dementia Risks

A key finding of the study is the association between low levels of formal education and increased risk of early-onset dementia. This underscores the importance of educational opportunities in potentially mitigating the risk of developing dementia at a younger age.

2. Low Socioeconomic Status

Economic Factors and Their Impact on Brain Health

Another significant factor identified is low socioeconomic status. This aspect suggests that life conditions and access to health resources can directly influence the early onset of dementia, highlighting the need for comprehensive social support systems.

3. Presence of Apolipoprotein ε4 Allele

Genetic Predisposition in Dementia Development

The study also found a strong association between the presence of the apolipoprotein ε4 allele and early-onset dementia. This discovery reinforces the role of genetic factors in the disease’s development, although it is not the sole determinant.

4. Alcohol Use Disorders

The Influence of Alcohol on Cognitive Health

Alcohol use disorders are prominently linked to early dementia. This finding highlights the importance of public health policies aimed at reducing alcohol abuse as a preventive measure against dementia.

5. Social Isolation

The Role of Social Connections in Brain Health

Social isolation is listed as a contributing factor, emphasizing the importance of social interaction and community engagement in preventing early-onset dementia.

6. Vitamin D Deficiency

Nutritional Deficits and Mental Health

Vitamin D deficiency is another risk factor identified, underscoring the significance of proper nutrition and sunlight exposure in maintaining brain health.

7. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels

Inflammation’s Role in Cognitive Decline

High levels of C-reactive protein, a marker for inflammation, are associated with an increased risk of early dementia, pointing to the role of inflammation in cognitive health.

8. Reduced Handgrip Strength

Physical Strength and Cognitive Function

Interestingly, the study suggests that reduced handgrip strength can be an indicator of early dementia risk, hinting at a link between physical and mental health.

9. Hearing Impairment

The Connection Between Hearing and Brain Health

Hearing impairment emerged as a risk factor, stressing the need for attention to auditory health as a component in dementia prevention strategies.

10. Orthostatic Hypotension

Blood Pressure and Brain Function

Orthostatic hypotension, a form of low blood pressure, was identified as a risk factor, indicating the importance of cardiovascular health in brain function.

11. Stroke

Long-Term Effects of Stroke on Cognition

Stroke occurrence is listed as a significant factor, highlighting the long-term impacts of vascular events on cognitive function.

12. Diabetes

The Link Between Glucose Control and Brain Health

Diabetes emerged as another risk factor, pointing to the relationship between blood sugar management and brain health.

13. Heart Disease

The Heart-Brain Connection

Heart disease is also associated with an increased risk of early dementia, reinforcing the connection between cardiac health and cognitive function.

14. Depression

Mental Health and Its Impact on the Brain

Finally, depression is identified as a risk factor, underlining the importance of mental well-being in dementia prevention.


This study marks a significant advancement in understanding early-onset dementia, demonstrating that prevention can be multifaceted, involving both genetic and lifestyle aspects. Adopting healthy habits, taking care of mental and physical health, and proactive approaches to brain health can be effective strategies in preventing this challenging condition.

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